Tutankhamun (alternatively spelled with Tutenkh-, -amen, -amon) was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty (ruled 1332 BC – 1323 BC), during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom.
Tutankhamun was the son of Akhenaten (formerly Amenhotep IV) or perhaps one of his cousins. As a prince he was known as Tutankhaten. He ascended to the throne in 1333 BC, at the age of nine or ten, taking the throne name of Tutankhamun. His wet-nurse was a woman called Maia, known from her tomb at Saqqara.
When he became king, he married his half-sister, Ankhesenpaaten, who later changed her name to Ankhesenamun. They had two daughters, both stillborn.
The third huge gold sarcophagus; on the cover of the sarcophagus, the goddess Neftit and Isis bring the dead pharaoh back to life, whilst the other two gods Nekhbet and Uadjet, carved in cloisonne, open their wings to protect the mummy.
The pharaoh’s false beard is a divine symbole, as are the attributes whitch the king holds in his hands, the whip and the sceptre, symbols of the two reigns of Upper and Lower Egypt.
Treasures of Tutankahamon
This breastplate is one of the most beautiful jewels on the whole Tutankahamon treasures.
This is flabellum comes from the funeral chanber of the young pharaoh, symbolically in the shade, and is placed at tha end of a 94cm long gold handle ending in the form of a stylized loutus flower. It was used to support the hugh ostrich feather fans for processions and religious ceremonies.
This simple and highly elegant breastplate was made of gold, inlaid with peaces of lapislazuli, cornelians, turquoises and green fedspars. It represents a winged scarab which sustains the solar disk. The good supply of precious and semi-precious stones in Egypt encouraged the artisans to librally use them in the creation of these jewels.
The same materials used for the breastplate also make up this beautiful earring which was perhaps made to commemorate Tutankhamon’s coronation celebrationw. The young pharaoh is in fact depicted in the centre of the ring, flanked by two urei holding the solar disk. Underneath the ring there are six rows of beads which end in drops of gold and coloured glass.
Canopic Naos: Howard Carter who discovered this large coffer called it “canopic naos.” The word “canopic” is from the ancient city of Canopus in northern Egypt and naos is from Ancient Greek meaning “inner part of the temple.”
This is a view of the whole gilded wood chapel, with the goddesse Isis and Selkihet who protect the canopic jars inside. The goddesses are with the eyes and eyebrows heavily accentuated in black.
Selkihet, with the scorpion on the head is the goddess of healing poisonous stings and bites in Egyptian mythology, originally the deification of the scorpion.
The Small Gold Naos (called the naos of the royal statues)
This is a small sanctuary with a wooden double door also completely covered in gold and resting on silver covered supports with ebony latches.
This is the detail of the decoration on a wall of the little shrine with the queen bathing the pharaoh’s body in ointments.
Golden Statuettes of the Pharaoh
The statuette on the left is a magnificent piece of sculpture becouse the subject is realistically depicted carrying out an action, which is rare for Egyptian modelling. The pharaoh, standing on a fragil papyrus darge, is about to throw a harpoon.
The king is wearing the red crown of Lower Egypt whilst in the statuette on the right he is holding a curved stick and whip and wearing the white symbol of Upper Egypt.
The animal theme which characterizes the majority of Tutankhamon’s funeral furnishings is also to be found in this splendid wooden throne entirely covered in gold and mounted with semi-precious stones and glass past.
At the sides of the seat there are two superb lion heads which represent two horizons, east and west; the chairlegs, placed on the cylindrical bases, are in the form of lion paws; the armrests are two serpents with thier wings outspread, embracing and protecting the cartouche with the pharaoh’s name.
Heartwarming Portrait of the Royal Couple, on the back of the throne.
The young pharaoh’s gentle consort, Ankhesenamen, tenderly reaches out her arms to anoint her husband with unguents, whilst the sun above beams lifegiving rays down on the royal couple.
Wooden Hunting Coffer of Tutankhamen This is a wooden coffer decorated with gouache painting on plaster. Both sides are painted with battle scenes in which. Tutankhamen, standing upright on his chariot, attacks and defeats hordes of Asian and African enemies.
This is an imaginary battle because it is highly improbable that the barely adolescent pharaoh particpated in any wars.
Ceremonial throne of Tutankhamon
This throne, quite different in its conception and style from the golden throne, is a highly refined example of craft-work with elegant propotions and colouring. It is sometime called “ecclesiastic”, a prototype of the episcopal throne (pulpit) in the Christian Church.
The back is encrusted with ivory and semi-precious stones and at the top the hawk-God Horus of is depicted with his wings outspread; on the top edge there is a row of urei with the solar disk in the middle.
Tutankhamun’s Canopic Chests and Jars
The canopic chests and jars are Egyptian funerary furniture made of a variety of materials, including alabaster, bronze, wood, and pottery. Each of the 4 Canopic jars in a set is different, containing only the prescribed organ and dedicated to specific sons of Horus, Imset, Hapy, Kebehsenut and Duamutef.
In Egyptian mythology, Imset (human head) was a funerary deity, one of the Four sons of Horus, who were associated with the canopic jars, specifically the one which contained the liver. Unlike his brothers, Imset was not associated with any animal and was always depicted as human. Isis was considered his protector.
Hapy (baboon-head) is bearing offerings.
Hapy was the god of the annual flooding of the Nile in ancient Egyptian religion. The flood deposited rich silt on the river’s banks, allowing the Egyptians to grow crops. Some of the titles of Hapi were, Lord of the Fishes and Birds of the Marshes and Lord of the River Bringing Vegetation. He is typically depicted as a man with a large belly wearing a loincloth, having long hair and having pendulous, female-like breasts.
The jar dedicated to Kebehsenut (jackal-head) held the liver and gall bladder; and the one to Duamutef (falcon-head), the lungs and heart.
The jars and the chest were carved from white alabaster, quarried from Hatnub, and then carved and painted with hieroglyphic spells. The shrine, along with many other priceless artifacts, was crammed in the small “Treasury of the Tomb”.
The four sarcophagi bearing the enbalmed viscera of the pharaoh were enclosed in a splendid albaster container divided into four compartments,each one corresponding to an organ and plcef under the protection of a God. The atopper of each compartment was a head, reproducing the pharaoh’s features, also made of the transparent alabaster which came from Hatnud, 300km from Memphis.