There are two main floors in the museum, the ground floor and the first floor.
1 Entrance Hall 2 Ancient Kingdom (Memphis Art) 3 Middle Kingdom 4 New Kingdom 5 Amarnian Art (Akhen-Aton) 6 Ethiopian Era 7 Ethiopian, Saitic, Persian Era 8 Greek-Roman Era 9 Nubia 10 Late Era 11 Central Hall: Middle Kingdom
1 Thinite Era 2 Sarcophagi of various eras 3 Middle Kingdom 4 Ancient and Middle Kingdom 5 Middle Kingdom 6 New Kingdom 7 Jewels 8 Funeral furnishings of Tutankhamen 9 Greek-Roman Era (mummies and sarcophagi) 10 Egyptian Pantheon 11 Trades and Crafts 12 Drawings and Writings 13 Trades and Day to Day Life 14 Greek-Roman Era (terra-cotta, pots, bronzes) 15 Bronze Object and Tiles 16 Furniture＆Crockery 17 Middle Kingdom Sarcophagi 18 Sarcophagi of Royal Family 19 Mummies of Animals 20 Prehistory
On the ground floor there is an extensive collection of papyrus and coins used in the Ancient world. The numerous pieces of papyrus are generally small fragments, due to their decay over the past two millennia. Several languages are found on these pieces, including Greek, Latin, Arabic, and the Ancient Egyptian writing language of hieroglyphs. The coins found on this floor are made of many different metals, including gold, silver, and bronze. The coins are not only Egyptian, but also Greek, Roman, and Islamic. This has helped historians research the history of Ancient Egyptian trade. Also on the ground floor are artifacts from the New Kingdom, the time period between 1550 and 1069 BC. These artifacts are generally larger than items created in earlier centuries. Those items include statues, tables, and coffins (sarcophagi).
On the first floor there are artifacts from the final two dynasties of Ancient Egypt, including items from the tombs of the Pharaohs Thutmosis III, Thutmosis IV, Amenophis II, Hatshepsut, and the courtier Maiherpri, as well as many artifacts from the Valley of the Kings.
Amenhotep III’s reign was a period of unprecedented prosperity and artistic splendour, when Egypt reached the peak of her artistic and international power. He seemed to love his wife Tiyi heartily.
Menkaure became famous for his pyramid tomb at Giza and his beautiful statue triads, showing the king together with goddesses.
Queen Hatshepsut was the fifth pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Ancient Egypt. She is generally regarded by Egyptologists as one of the most successful pharaohs, reigning longer than any other woman of an indigenous Egyptian dynasty.
Statue of Ramses Ⅱ(Left)
This colossus comes from the present El Achmunein, a town of Upper Egypt, 120 miles south of Cairo, supposed to be the ancient Hermopolis.
It is made of granaite and depicts Ramses Ⅱthe Great, an almost mythical figure in the secular history of Egypt, whose fame and memory has passed unblemished through the time.
Ramses’ reign began at around about 1290 B.C. and he died at over ninety years old in 1224. He enjoyed displaying his power in the colossal monuments which have immortalized him: Abu Simbel, Luxor, Karnak.
The Narmer Palette (The Narmer Stele) (Below)
This Small engraved sandstone stele (74cm high) is in fact a cosmetics tablet, with central hollow for preparing eye cosmetics: it can be dated at around 3100 B.C. the begining of predynastic era.
The scenes engravedon both sides in bas-relief recall one of the principal events in the history of the country, the unification of Upper and Lower Egypt during Narmer’s reign.
On this side the king, wearing the conical crown of Upper Egypt, with one hand grasps the hair of a prostrated enemy whose arms are open begging for mercy and with the other grips the club which will deal the finishing blow; on the above right, Horus the hawk-God is depicted bringing prisoners, symbolized by an ethnically well distinguished head. On the other side, Narmer is wearing thw cap type crown of Lower Egypt. From then on the royal crown is double, made up of the union between Upper and Lower Egypt.
Statue of Kefren
Kefren was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of 4th dynasty. He was the son of Khufu and the throne successor of Djedefre. According to the ancient historian Manetho Khafra was followed by king Bikheris, but according to archaeological evidences he was rather followed by king Menkaure. Khafra was the builder of the second largest pyramid of Giza. Some of the egyptologists also credit him with the building of the Great Sphinx.
Wooden Statue of Ka-Apre (Left)
This is the oldest known life-size wooden statue in ancient Egypt. Carved of sycamore wood (plane tree), it was discovered at Sakkara in the mastaba tomb of Ka-aper which lies west of the pyramid of Userkaf. It represents a khry-heb (lector priest) named Ka-aper, who is depicted in a realistic style with a neat hair cut, a round face and full checks. His eyes are inlaid with white quartz, rock crystal and resin, and surrounded by a cooper frame. He is represented with a large stomach, heavy hips and fleshy wrinkles on his back.
The statue shows the priest with the long kilt which the nobles probably wore when they were at home in place of the semi-pleated kilts reserved for their office. He advances his left leg and holds two sceptres, now lost. Some of the missing parts have been substituted by modern replacements: the staff which he holds in his left hand, the left leg and foot and the right leg are all modern. Here, as in a number bodies to reflect the owner’s prosperity.
The dwarf Seneb and his family
Seneb was a dwarf who served as a high-ranking court official in the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, circa 2520 BC. Despite his diminutive size, Seneb was a person of considerable importance and wealth who owned thousands of cattle, held twenty palace and religious titles and was married to a high-ranking priestess of average size with whom he had three children. His successful career and the lavishness of his burial arrangements are indicative of the acceptance given to dwarfs in ancient Egyptian society, whose texts advocated the acceptance and integration of those with physical and mental disabilities.
Group of Rahotep and Nofret
Rahotep (left) was a Prince in Ancient Egypt during the 4th dynasty. He was probably a son of pharaoh Sneferu. Nofret (right, Rahotep’s wife) was a noblewoman and princess.
Nofret’s parents are not known. Nofret married Rahotep, and had three daughters and three sons with Rahotep.
Nofret was buried with her husband in mastaba at Meidum. In 1871, beautiful statues of Rahotep and Nofret were found.
The pair of statues, for Nofret and Rahotep, have the standard difference of skin color of that time: males are dark because they spend their time in activities in the sun; women always have a fairer skin color, their domain being in the house.
Her name Nofret means “The wise and beautiful woman”.
Block Statue of Senenmut
This statue is in black granite, 1.4 m hight, comes from Karnak. A block statue of Senenmut with the head of Hatshepsut’s daughter Neferure appearing below his.
Senenmut was an 18th dynasty ancient Egyptian architect and government official. His name translates literally as “mother’s brother.”
Senenmut first enters the historical record on a national level as the “Steward of the God’s Wife” (Hatshepsut) and “Steward of the King’s Daughter” (Neferure). Some Egyptologists place Senenmut’s entry into royal service during the reign of Thutmose I, but it is far more likely that it occurred during either the reign of Thutmose II or while Hatshepsut was still regent and not pharaoh. After Hatshepsut was crowned pharaoh, Senenmut was given more prestigious titles and became high steward of the king.
Fresco from the Tomb of Nefertari
To the modern ear,
the sound of her name evokes
visions of unrivaled splendor,
surpassing beauty and supreme
An honored and beloved queen,
still in the prime of earthly existence,
set off upon a voyage to the
in quest of eternal life.
House of Eternity
John K. McDonald
Papyrus of the “Book of the Dead”
The Book of the Dead is an ancient Egyptian funerary text, used from the beginning of the New Kingdom around 1550 BC. The text consists of a number of magic spells intended to assist a dead person’s journey through the underworld, and into the afterlife. The Book of the Dead was part of a tradition of funerary texts which includes the earlier Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts, which were painted onto objects, not papyrus.